Punctuation marks rules and examples pdf

Punctuation marks rules and examples pdf! Punctuation marks are the set of symbols which are used for the clearly modify the  meaning of sentences and maintain text  smoothly .It is used for the separation of sentences. Below here List of  all the types rules and examples of Punctuation Marks which are very inportant for the stop and continue talk and daily sentences. 

Punctuation marks rules and examples

What is Punctuation?

Punctuation is a set of markings or symbols that we need to clearly explain the meaning of our sentences and to maintain the text flowing smoothly. It indicates when we should take a break, divides concepts, indicates when a phrase is quoting someone else’s words and performs one of several important tasks.

There are fourteen major punctuation marks in the English language, which are listed below.

Names of punctuation marks

  1. Comma (,)
  2. Exclamation Mark (!)
  3. Apostrophe (‘)
  4. Colon (:)
  5. Brackets []
  6. Semicolon (;)
  7. Ellipsis (…)
  8. Quotation Marks / Speech Marks (” “)
  9. Question Mark (?)
  10. Slash (/)
  11. Hyphen (-)
  12. Dash (– or —)
  13. Full Stop / Period (.)
  14. Parentheses ()

Punctuation marks and examples

Punctuation marks rules and examples pdf

Punctuation marks rules

What is end punctuation or terminal punctuation marks?

End punctuation signals the end of a sentence, as a capital letter signals the beginning.

There are three end marks.

  • The full stop (.)
  • Question marks (?)
  • The exclamation mark (!)

The full stop / The period

The full stop conveys the longest pause in a passage and is used:

To make the end of a declarative sentence, a mild command, or an indirect question.

Examples

  • she needs your request. (Declaration sentence)
  • Aliya asked me where I was going. (Indirect question)
  • Plz Help me. (Command)
  • Do not forget to pray the minister for performing the ceremony.
  • Driver choose their own speed.
  • Please send me the test.
  • The bus driver asked us where we wanted to go.

M.A.  (master of arts)

B.A. (bachelor of arts)

M.B.B.S.  (bachelor of medicine & bachelor of surgery)

U.S.A. ( united state of America)

U.K. (united kingdom)

U.P.U. (united postal union)

M.R.Qureshi ( Mohammad Raiz Qureshi)

G.M.Shahid (Ghulam mustafa shahid)

e.g.  (= Latin: exempli gratia = for examples)

Nov. (November)

In general, abbreviations of governmental and international agencies do not take periods.

UNO (united nations organization)

UNESCO (united nations educational, scientific and culture)

PAF (Pakistan air force)

NATO (North Atlantic treaty organization)

CIA (central intelligence agency)

WAPDA (water and power development authority)

The full stop is optional if the contraction includes the final letter of the word.

Examples

Rs. 50.37

$ 156.24

$ .98

A comma or other mark of punctuation may follow the period after an abbreviation, but at the end of a sentence, only one period is used.

Examples

  • After he earned his M.A., he began studying for his Ph.D.

Three continuous full stop/ periods are placed to show the omission of some words or incompletion of a passage.  The fourth full stop is placed to mark the end of the sentence.

Examples

  • She left the room, banged the door… and went out.
  • The report said: There are some issues to be considered, of which the chief are money, time, and personal … Let us consider personal first.

Full stop is also used to separate hours and minutes.

  • I shall reach at 5.30 p.m.

kinds of punctuation marks and examples

kinds of punctuation marks and examples

The Question mark (?)

The question mark is used after a direct question.

  • Where are you going?
  • What is her name?
  • Did you write a letter to your friend?
  • Have you not completed your work?
  • Did you take part in tests?

Helping verb

Do, does, did, is, are, am, was, were, has, have, had, shall, should, will, would, can, could, may, might.

  • Why did you beat the dog?

Interrogative words

Who, whom, whose, where, why, what, when, which, how.

  • Who knocks at the table?
  • What made you sad?
  • Who taught you Arabic?

The question mark is used within parentheses to indicate that the date or other statement is doubtful.

Examples

  • She was born in 1975 (?) and died after two years.
  • She must has paid a lot of money seventy (?) for that meal.
  • King Monty ruled between 1999 (?) and 1030 A.D.
  • The servent discovered twelve (?) bronze statues among the undersea ruins.
  • Some animals … a shunk? … is boring holes in the lawn at evening.

The question mark may follow separate questions within a single interrogative sentence.

  • Do you recall the time of the incident? The license numbers of a car involved? The names of drivers? Of the witnesses?
  • Are you sure of his kindness?His skill? His determination?

Do not use a question mark at the end of an indirect question.

  • She asked me what I was doing? (Incorrect)

She asked me what I was doing. (Correct)

  • She asked her if she would help him. (Correct)
  • I wonder who wrote this song. (Correct)

The question mark is used in polite requests.

  • Would you mind giving me your book?
  • Would you fetch the copy, Arslan?
  • Would you please mind opening the door?
  • Would you please accept her apology?
  • Could you meet me in the morning?
  • Could you accompany me to the hotel?

punctuation marks

punctuation marks

The Exclamation Mark (!)

The exclamation mark is used afterwords, phrases, and sentences expressing some strong emotions or sudden feelings of the mind.

For example

  • What a good Advice!
  • Aren’t they handsome!
  • What a spectacular scene!
  • Girls are walking on the moon!
  • Impossible!
  • Alas! I have lost the idea.
  • Hurrah! We have won the cricket match.
  • That really hurts!
  • Ouch! That stings!
  • I’d love to not come!
  • They are revolting!
  • Go to your class!
  • Be careful!
  • O’ king ! Pardon me.

names of punctuation marks

names of punctuation marks

The comma ( . )

The comma is the shortest pause and is used within a sentence to separate or set off words and groups of words.

The comma is used to mark off words used in addressing a person.

  • Nomi, do not find fault with others.
  • Ahmad, I hope you and Jasmine can come to the party.
  • I would be vary glad, Raveez, if you would do this for me.
  • Please let me know, Mr.Akram, when you will be in Lahore.
  • Friends, come in.

When you mention a person’s title after his or her name or the name after the title.

  • I saw Mrs. smreen, your teacher, his morning.
  • Khipil, the builder, did not attention to his life.
  • My ideal teacher, M. R. Qureshi, is a very honest person.

The comma is used to make off a series of words of the same class like nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, and verbs.

  • Pakistan, China, Saudi Arabia are good friends. (Noun)
  • Rizwan, Arslan, Zeeshan appeared in the marriage hall. (Noun)
  • The Girl purchased pencils, nibs, paper, and a dictionary from the shop. (Noun)
  • In the room, we found old furniture, worn out clothes, and several books. (Noun)
  • We left the party room, switched off the lights, locked up the door, and went to the club. (Verb)
  • Mrs. rahmi Parveen is kind, intelligent, hard-working, cooperative, and sincere.
  • M.R. Qureshi worked honestly, diligently, willingly, and industriously. (Adverbs)
  • You, he, and I help the poor. (Pronoun)

The comma is used between pair of words connected by “and”.

  • High and low, rich and poor, wise and foolish, all must die one day.
  • Truth is fair and artless, simple and sincere, uniform and constant.

The comma is used to indicate the omission of a word or words in a sentence.

  • What you do in your responsibility; what I do, mine.
  • Some people  prefer the dictation machines with stands; the others, without.
  • One of the mens involved in the accident is a mill owner; the other, a beggar.
  • They went to lahore; I, to tulamba.
  • To err is human; to forgive, divine.

The comma is used between the day and year is a date.

  • April 28, 2001
  • January 16, 2003

The comma is used after and before certain words. Some of the words are: however, at last, of course, well, therefore, indeed, meanwhile, to sum up, first, no doubt, in fact, in short, after all, to say the last, to tell the truth, all the same, on the whole, finally, for instance, etc.

  • He did not, however, help me.
  • Ahmad behavior, to say the last, was rude.
  • She is, to tell the truth, a fool.
  • I must tell you, finally, never to come here again.
  • Well, I don’t  know it.
  • The result, on the whole, is not discouraging.
  • He will get the job next month; meanwhile, He is working at home.

The comma is used to separate the reported speech from the reporting verb in direct speech.

  • Ali said to me, “ I work hard”.
  • The professor said, “Do not make a noise”.
  • “Fetch me a glass of coldrink”, said the master to his servant.

The comma is used after a negative and affirmative adverb (no or yes) that begins a sentence.

  • Yes, I will come to you in the afternoon.
  • No, I cannot help you in this problem.

The comma is used to separate an adverbial clause beginning with if, when, where, unless, until, after, before, since, though, because, etc, from the principal clause.

what is punctuation marks and examples what is punctuation marks and examples Punctuation marks rules and examples pdf

The Semi Colon ( ; )

The semi colon is a longer pause than the comma.

To mark off coordinate clauses connected by the following conjunctions.

Otherwise, therefore, so, then, for, yet, still, thus, however, furthermore, moreover, indeed, also, hence, else, but, nevertheless, consequently, accordingly, etc.

  • Take care of your health; otherwise, you will be ill.
  • Drink milk; for it is a perfect diet.
  • I like the samples very much; therefore, I am going to order seven dozen.
  • She did not work hard; consequently, she failed.

Sometimes, the semi colons are used in a sentence which is complete but does not have conjunction.

  • It was morning; a cool breeze was blowing; the birds were twitting; the flowers were blossoming; the atmosphere was charming.

The semi colon may be used instead of ‘and’, ‘and then’, ’till’ etc.

  • She came and she saw and then she went away.

She came; she saw; she went away.

  • He looked at it, and then he hesitated and then he jumped.

He looked at it; he hesitated; he jumped.

The semi colons are used to separate a number of loosely connected co-ordinate clauses. For example;

  • Reading makes a full man; speaking a witty man; writing an exact man.
  • The semi colons are used to separate groups of similar units.

The chief commodities are butter, cheese, milk, eggs; lamb, beef, mutton; oats, barley, rye, and wheat.

THE COLON ( : )

The colon is used to represent even longer pause than the semi colon.

The colon is used to introduce a quotation.

  • Bacon says: “Reading makes a full man, writing an exact man, speaking a ready man”.
  • Shakespeare says: “Frailty, thy name is woman”.

The colon is placed before a list that appears at the end of a sentence.

  • Shakespeare’s greatest tragedies are: Hamlet, King Lear, Othello and Macbeth.
  • The great cities of Pakistan are: Karachi, Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi and Multan.
  • Please remember to bring three articles: a comb, a razor and a dozen of eggs.

The colon can be used instead of “but”, “then”, “so”, “because” etc.

  • I refused the offer because I do not wish to go there.

In this sentence colon is used n lace of ‘because’

I refused the offer: I do not wish to go there.

  • Speech is silver but silence is gold

Speech is silver: silence is gold.

The colon is used to introduce an explanation of some fact which has been mentioned before.

  • No man should be too sure: the wisest comment mistakes.
  • I cannot live in the house: it is damp.

The colon is used statements or sentences grammatically independent but closely related in sense.

  • To err is human: to forgive, divine.
  • Speech is silver: but silence is gold.

The colon is used to introduce some examples.

  • The subject generally comes before the verb: “Rizwan reads his books”.
  • The adjective generally precedes the noun: “He saw a black horse”.

The colon is used to separate hours from minutes when the time of day is shown in numerals.

830    6:30   11:15

The colon is used to indicate shares or proportions (ratios).

  • Combine the three chemicals in a 3: 5: 1 ratio.
  • Elder brother: 5 parts; younger brother: 4 parts; the youngest brother: 3 parts; the sisters: 2 parts.

The colon is not followed by a capital letter except a quotation is given.

  • She advised: we should try our luck somewhere else.
  • The Quaid said: “Unity, faith and discipline should be your principles in life”.

The colon is used to mark off the name of an author from the name of the book he has written.

  • G.M. rahmet : The learner’s English Grammar & composition.

The quotation marks/ Inverted commas (“, ,”)

The quotation marks are used to report the exact words of the speaker.

  • She said, “Life is not bed of roses.”
  • He said, “I am going to Lahore.”
  • “Fetch me a glass of drink,” said he.
  • “My dear brother, “said he, “I am going to Karachi.”
  • “I am doing sums,” said he, “will you help me?”

The inverted commas are used for the title of a book, essay, poem, etc.

  • “tocsic” is a very good drama.
  • “My Financial Career” is a very interesting story.
  • The poem “We are Seven” is written by Wordsworth.
  • I have read “The Great Expectations.”

Single quotation marks are used to show a quotation within a quotation.

  • At the beginning of the class, the teacher said, “Where does

Shakespear speak of ‘quite desperation’ and what does he mean by this phrase?”

  • She said to the students, “Do not cheat others, be honest as ‘honestly is the best policy’.”

The Dash ( __ )

The dash is used to indicate a sudden stop or change of thought.

  • If my father were alive __ but why weep for the past.
  • I wish I could come earlier __ but who could forestall fate?

The dash is used before and after the explanatory words.

  • There was a time __ a golden time __ when I was young.
  • There shall come a time __ a blessed time __ when Kashmir will become a part of Pakistan.

The dash is used before and after an enumeration.

  • Everything was stolen __ utensils, clothes, watch.
  • Friends, relatives, neighbors __ all deserted me .

The dash is used to indicate the intentional omission of some word or name.

  • _____ is fond of gambling.

The dash is used to indicate hesitation.

  • I ____ I am afraid I cannot lend you this book.
  • I feel ____ I mean.
  • Rich and poor, high and low, old and young __all fought for freedom.
  • Relatives, friends, neighbors ___all came to see me.

The hyphen ( – )

The hyphen is used to connect the parts of a compound word.

  • Dining-room
  • Writing-table
  • Letter-writing contest
  • Flying-club
  • Passer-by

The hyphen is used to break a word at the end of a line.

  • Sub-stantial
  • Knowl-edge
  • in-complete
  • bright-en

If the figures more than twenty and less than hundred are written in words, the hyphen is placed between them.

  • Twenty-one
  • Thirty-nine
  • Ninety-seven

Here is a short list of some words that need hyphens.

  • all forms of in -law: brother-in-law, father-in-law.
  • all great compounds: great-auntgreat-grandfather.
  • all vice compounds: vice-chairmanvice-consul.
  • all elect compounds: mayor-electpresident-elect.
  • all self compounds: self-taught, self-assured.

Do not hyphen the following.

  • any ache compound: toothachebackache.
  • any book compound: textbook, notebook.

Hyphens are used to separate syllables in words.

  • in-te-ri-or
  • plan-e-tar-y
  • rhyth-mi-cal

Note: Please remember that each syllable in English word must contain at least one vowel. If none of the five regular vowels ( a, e, i, o, u ) is present, count ‘y’ as a vowel.

Hyphens are used to separate the words in the written form of a fraction.

For example:

  • The vote passed by a two-thirds majority.

Punctuation marks rules and examples

types of punctuation marks and examples types of punctuation marks and examples

Different punctuation marks and examples

The Apostrophe ( ‘ )

To form the possessive of singular nouns and abbreviations of singular items, use an apostrophe plus s:

  • a girl’s hat
  • Rizwan’s car
  • NATO’s future
  • he C.O.’s orders
  • shahid book
  • the cow’s tail

To form the possessive of plural nouns not ending in s, add an apostrophe plus s:

  • men              men’s activities
  • women women’s club
  • children children’s park

To indicate that two or more persons own something jointly, add an apostrophe and s to the last of the nouns.

  • Aslam and Akram’s shop.
  • Rizwan, Arslan and Zeeshan’s house.

To indicate that two or more persons own two or more things separately, use the apostrophe and s with all the nouns.

  • Aslam’s and Akram’s shop.
  • Shahid’s , Hamid’s and Amin’s shops.

To form the possessive with singular compound nouns, add an apostrophe and s to the last word.

  • My sister-in-law ‘s career.
  • The editor-in-chief’s policy.
  • Commander-in-chief’s orders.

To form the possessive of certain indefinite pronouns, add an apostrophe and s.

  • someone’s coat
  • no one’s fault
  • everybody else’s joke
  • one’s relatives

Note: With indefinite pronouns that do not take the apostrophe, form the possessive with ‘of’:

  • the plan of most
  • the hopes of many
  • the cooking of few

Use the possessive case with nouns or pronouns followed by gerunds ( verb + ing =nour

  • I dislike your whistling now.
  • the crowd’s cheering
  • her protesting
  • our laughing

Use an apostrophe and s when necessary, in common phrase of time and measurement.

  • 7 O’clock
  • five rupee’s worth
  • two weeks’ notice
  • a day’s work
  • our money’s worth
  • a stone’s throw

Use an apostrophe and s to form the plural of figures, letters and abbreviations.

  • Dot your i’s and cross your t’s.
  • Your u’s and n’s are not written properly.
  • Two 5’s and six 8’s make fifty-eight.
  • Many B.A.’s and M.A.’s are unemployed these days.

Use an apostrophe to mark the omission of a letter or letters in a contraction.

Also learn about Green vegetables 

  • You should have written. …..you should’ve written.
  • This does not work. ………This doesn’t work.
  • They will not stop. ……They won’t stop.
  • I shall forgive him. ……..I’ll forgive him.
  • I have finished. ……..I’ve finished.
  • I cannot write it. ………I can’t write.it.
  • He is not here. ……….He isn’t here.

Use apostrophe to mark the omission of numbers in dates. For example,

  • 1981 …. ’81
  • 1917 ’17
  • 1941 ….. ’41
  • the elections of ’84
  • the hurricane of ’36

Note: Such shortened dates generally refer to famous historical events.

The apostrophe is placed after final‘s’ in a word when it is a plural noun.

  • Girls’ school
  • Workers’ union
  • Writers’ society.
  • Boys’ college
  • Players’ arrival.

Brackets /the parentheses ( )

There are usually two types of bracket “( )”  “[ ]”.

  • He is (as he always was) a rebel. zu(),
  • . Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia). (!) );
  • They talked about Machtpolitik (power politics)
  • His wife (he married about a year ago) is a member of this club.

Brackets is also used for reference.

  • Thomas Carlyle (1795 –  1881)
  • A discussion of integral circuits (see p.45)

Brackets is also used for reference letters and numbers e.g.

  1. English
  2. Urdu
  3. Geography

One of the selectmen supports the proposed change in traffic patterns for three reasons: (1) more customers would be attracted to the shopping area, (2) the hospital zone would become quieter, and (3) fire engines would be able to move more quickly than they now can.

Brackets are also used for synonyms

  • There are many (apparent) difficulties.

kinds of punctuation marks and examples kinds of punctuation marks and examples

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